Blackheads (open and closed)
Open blackheads look like black dots in the pores of the skin and closed look like bumps on the surface of the skin. They have a white color.
Papules and pustules
Papules represent inflamed red bump on the skin surface, within which there is no cavity with pus. A pimple can survive for a few months and go unnoticed or can last several days to transform into pustules.
Pustules is an inflammatory lesion, inside which is a cavity of pus. As a rule, on the skin with acne can be found both papules and pustules at the same time.
The knots appear in the later stages of acne and are large, firm, painful bumps under the skin’s surface. Inside the knot, there is a cavity with no pus and they resemble papules, but only in larger sizes.
The cyst represents the pustules of massive proportions, i.e. large pockets filled with pus. After healing of the cyst (as well as after healing knots) the skin has scars and age spots.
Causes and mechanism of development
Under the surface of the skin, there are many hair follicles from which the hair grows, penetrating to the surface of the skin through its pores. At the base of each hair follicle many small sebaceous glands produce sebum. This oil comes from the sebaceous glands through the narrow channels first, into the lumen of the hair follicle and forth (along with the shaft) he rushes out to the skin surface.
Development of acne is connected with two points:
The first point is an increased function of the sebaceous glands at the base of hair follicles.
The increased sebum production is directly related to the increase in adrenal androgen production (male s*x hormones). These hormones are produced in both genders, but women produce them to a lesser extent. That is why acne develops at puberty in adolescents.
The second point is a keratosis of the epithelium within the follicle.
The surface of each hair follicle from the inside is covered with layers of epithelial cells. The increase in the rate of epithelial cells leads to the growth in the number of exfoliated, dead cells in the lumen.
The increase in sebum production and increase the number of exfoliated cells result in the formation of traffic jams that clog the pores of the skin. Such tube is called acne vulgaris. Acne can look like:
White bumps, if the tube is formed in the depth of the pores
In the form of black dots on the inside, if the tube is formed at the surface of the skin.
The congestion leads to the fact that sebum can’t get out and accumulates in the lumen of the hair follicle. Enclosed space with a nutrient medium inside is the ideal place for the development of infection, so bacteria trapped inside hair follicle from the skin surface begins to multiply intensively there.
Such a process leads to the development in and around the follicle inflammation. Inflammation for an extended period can occur without the formation of pus, in this case, such a structure is called a papule. Papule looks like a red, inflamed bump on the skin surface. Papules can disappear without a trace, but they usually transform into pustules. A pustule is already a classic pimple with pus inside.
Different types of black skin acne treatment
If you are not able to maintain the face skin in good condition – be sure to seek consultation with a dermatologist. Treatment of acne in adults and teenagers is alike. The exception is women who use hormonal contraceptives as a therapy.
How to treat black skin acne will depend primarily on what inflammatory elements are present on the skin. The treatment will be different in situations when the black skin has:
Only pimples (papules and pustules),
The mixed form of acne (acne a pimple),
The presence of knots and cysts.
To achieve any noticeable improvement of the black skin acne, one will need up to 4 weeks of treatment. The standard course of therapy is about six weeks. However, the persistent acne treatment may take up to four months (and sometimes longer) to get a good result and not only to get rid of acne but post-inflammatory pigmentation of the black skin.
Homemade treatment of the black skin acne
So, the proper treatment of acne requires at least an initial consultation of a dermatologist to ensure that you picked up the right treatment according to your type of acne. Using this information, you can be treated at home. Homemade acne treatment of the black skin covers not only the primary therapy. It also includes:
Daily skin care
Use only mild detergent, do not cause irritation.
Skin treatment with local products
Treatment products with benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid or gel with the antibiotic are carried out two times a day. Do it only once a day. Everything will depend on doctor’s prescription: this can be 1 product or a combination of 2 drugs.
Using special creams
Remember that dry skin is treated by creams. The oily skin cares in the form of gels. Lotions are suitable for all skin types.
Use a light makeup
Cosmetics and care products for the skin often result in clogging of pores and formation of acne. You should only use light moisturizers and makeup, made exclusively for water-based!
Reducing of black skin acne scars
The scars on his face can be treated in several options. They can include both surgical and conservative treatments. The techniques described below are effective against acne scars. Methods to get rid of red spots after acne will be significantly different.
professional and home chemical peels;
skin polishing with abrasives.
There are several methods of harsh skin resurfacing:
the method of microdermabrasion;
the method of dermatophyte;
skin resurfacing lasers.
How long do the results last after treatment?
After you have cleared the face of acne, blackheads and blemishes acne can appear again if you have stopped treatment. To avoid this, make sure you continue emergency supportive therapy. It is necessary unless of course, you want the acne to go forever.
The duration of therapy in adolescents can reach 4-5 years until adolescence (come the age of 20). In a small number of cases, acne may persist up to 30 years, and in this case, you have to use a maintenance therapy regularly.